At the end of Apoptosis, the cell will undergo fragmentation. Fragmentation is when the cell breaks apart into smaller vesicles called apoptotic bodies. Phagocytes, such as a macrophage, will clean up the apoptotic bodies.
Initiation of apoptosis activates protelytic caspases.
1. Caspases degrade cellular organelles.
2. Caspases cleave proteins within the cytoplasm which causes the cell to shrink and creates small protrusions on the surface of the cell called blebs.
3. Caspases activate productions of DNases, which break down DNA and the nucleus that holds it.
4. Caspases create a signal that attracts macrophages to clean up the destroyed cell.
Apoptosis may be initiated through the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway. In the intrinsic pathway, the cell initiates apoptosis because it senses stress.
Apoptosis is the programmed cell death of otherwise healthy cells. It is an important part of cellular function within a healthy organism.
During a cell's life, it will create proteins called procaspases. These procaspases will be activated and become caspases to begin apoptosis.
During apoptosis, Bcl-2 proteins, localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria, cause the release of caspases.