Cholesterol provides stability and support for the plasma membrane. Similar to a phospholipid, it has a hydrophilic and hydrophobic part.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid with a hydrophilic (attracted to water) head and a hydrophobic (repelled by water) tail. Phospholipids are the main component of lipid bilayers of cell membranes.
A chromosome contains the DNA of an organelle. The DNA is wrapped around a histone into a unit called a nucleosome.
At the end of Apoptosis, the cell will undergo fragmentation. Fragmentation is when the cell breaks apart into smaller vesicles called apoptotic bodies. Phagocytes, such as a macrophage, will clean up the apoptotic bodies.
Initiation of apoptosis activates protelytic caspases.
1. Caspases degrade cellular organelles.
2. Caspases cleave proteins within the cytoplasm which causes the cell to shrink and creates small protrusions on the surface of the cell called blebs.
3. Caspases activate productions of DNases, which break down DNA and the nucleus that holds it.
4. Caspases create a signal that attracts macrophages to clean up the destroyed cell.
Apoptosis may be initiated through the intrinsic or extrinsic pathway. In the intrinsic pathway, the cell initiates apoptosis because it senses stress.
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